Critical Analysis of Higher Education Sector in Libya / Part 4


gepostet am : 15-09-2013 | von : Koltermann | Kategorie : Education abroad, Gastautor, Overseas
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  1. Discussion and Policy Implications

The claims by the previous regime over massive spending and investment in education may have been valid, but certainly not over the period under this study. Over the period 2002-08,  on average, between 3 and 4 percent of GDP was allocated to education. Moreover, as shown earlier, per-capita spending in this sector was by far the lowest in the overall economy. Years of under-resourcing and poor management has now left the Libyan education sector in a dire position. Coupled with corruption and injustice, the overall quality of education provision is now seriously questioned. The findings from our survey questionnaire have clearly shown that low wages and unfair promotional schemes have led to lack of incentive and severe decline in innovative teaching and research. In particular, in our sample of 200 teachers/instructors and lecturers in higher education institutions, over three-quarters stated that they had produced no new teaching material; and nor have they attempted any enhancement in their teaching delivery.

These findings are compatible with those of Saad (2012) which reports that lack of innovative Libya was run as a closed economy for well over 40 years until November 2011. Those years of isolation led to severe decline in provision of quality in all aspects of the economy; and education was indeed of no exception. Quality education, like any other commodity, whether offered by the state or the private sector, cannot be maintained unless factors of production – here being teachers/lecturers and capital – are directly and fairly rewarded. Particularly since the early 1980s, under payment, widespread corruption, and banning of teaching of foreign languages from schools had led to serious lack of incentives, hence decline in quality of education delivery.

Paulwip /
(Die Mona Lisa, Paulwip /

As for policy implications arising from this research, two main issues are worth noting here. First, low public pay is a main source of bribery, poor service quality and corruption. Particularly, in the light of gradual rising of prices of basic commodities since the uprising of 2011, it is vitally important for the policy-makers to review and to index wages in accordance with projected inflation rates.

Introduction of efficient and fair monetary reward system is 14  one of the fundamental bases for improved productivity and hence enhanced quality teaching. It should be borne in mind that decisions on building new schools or colleges in different corners of this massive country is justified, if and only if adequate facilities and quality human resources are made available. Second, policy-makers must make every effort in introducing an effective, transparent and workable national promotion mechanism for appreciation of quality service in teaching and research. To ensure that corruption has no place in this new system, constant supervisory quality enhancement procedures, preferably conducted by independent watch dogs supported and monitored by the end consumers, must be implemented and supported.

Maren Beßler
(Stausee, Maren Beßler pixelio.de9)

One way of achieving this objective may be found by making closer collaboration with institutions in other countries to achieve excellent quality assurance systems and accreditation of educational programmes. In short, education policy must be based on quality enhancement and regular monitoring of teachers/lecturers teaching approaches and students’ satisfaction criteria, and nothing else. This way, the existing massive gap between output and outcome in education is anticipated to be reduced in the medium term.

Dieser Gastbeitrag ist von Dr. M. Taghavi, London (Vice-Principal, Academic & Executive Programmes, IBEC, Tripoli, Libya,

Hier finden Sie Part 1, Part 2 und Part 3

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